- WHKMLA : History
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- Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1914 [2 volumes]
- About this book
Unlike most encyclopedias this volume has a brilliantly conceived unifying theme about the struggle for territory in Europe and beyond for over a hundred years. Carl Cavanagh Hodge is an excellent editor. He has brought together sixty scholars to define, describe and explain over topics of imperialism. Hodge's excellent introductory synthesis of the period from to binds together the disparate subjects.
He then indexes the book in such as way as to allow the reader to examine the historical entries from the point of view of concepts, treaties, alliances, geographical regions and countries, battles, institutions, leaders, statesmen, conflicts and wars. The 19th century witnessed momentous and rapid change. The European wars over territory and authority combined with overseas exploits led to a period of massive globalization, not seen before in the world.
Expansion in the Americas, Africa and to some extent in Asia was accompanied by a growing commercial integration.
WHKMLA : History
There was not a political union such as the League of Nations and the United Nations later provided, but still the world grew steadily closer together. Commercial activity in the form of trade and banks forced interdependence among states even while they contested over territories and peoples. There has been much superficial discussion in recent year about whether or not the United States has become an "empire" or has imperial ambitions.
This book will help to nuance these ideas.
Four conclusions about this book are clear: it is meticulously edited, beautifully written, very useful, and dizzyingly timely. Go to Amazon. Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over direct administration of the colonies. Only Siam managed to avoid direct foreign rule, although was compelled to political reforms and make generous concessions in order to appease the Western powers. The Monthon reforms of the late 19th century continuing up till around , imposed a Westernised form of government on the country's partially independent cities called Mueang , such that the country could be said to have successfully colonised itself.
When the Spanish—American War began in Cuba in , Filipino revolutionaries declared Philippine independence and established the First Philippine Republic the following year. In the Treaty of Paris of that ended the war with Spain, the United States gained the Philippines and other territories; in refusing to recognise the nascent republic, America effectively reversed her position of This led directly to the Philippine—American War , in which the First Republic was defeated; wars followed with the Republic of Zamboanga , the Republic of Negros and the Republic of Katagalugan , all of which were also defeated.
The Long Depression also intensified the competition among the European powers. This period of prolonged economic recession saw severe price deflation as well as factors unfavourable to trade. The European governments responded to this crisis by promoting home industries and minimising trade with other European countries.
However, as domestic markets and export opportunities quickly became saturated, finding new markets for manufactured goods became more urgent. New colonies overseas, not exposed to the same economic conditions, provided the perfect solution. During the midth century, the Europeans had certain goals which they regarded as important in the humanitarian sense. Towards this end, they implemented policies providing educational and healthcare services. However, this humanitarian concern was influenced by political concerns, and sometimes arose more out of cultural arrogance than genuine sympathy.
Sometimes, the acquisition of colonies was an attempt to revive declining political and economic status rather than a show of power. France was preoccupied with expanding her colonial empire to recover from her humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. Britain, having lost her dominance in the world economy to newly industrialised countries such as Germany Prussia united all the German states to form Germany in after the victory in the Franco-Prussian war and the United States , saw empire-building as a necessary recourse.
It was generally assumed that the establishment of colonies to protect existing trade links would prevent further decline of the European powers. In the early phase, European control in Southeast Asia was largely confined to the establishment of trading posts. These trading posts were used to store the oriental products obtained from the local traders before they were exported to the European markets. Such trading posts had to be located along major shipping routes and their establishments had to be approved by the local ruler so that peace would prevail for trade to take place. Malacca , Penang , Batavia and Singapore were all early trading posts.
The role of the Europeans changed, however, in the industrialised phase as their control expanded beyond their trading posts. As the trading posts grew due to an increase in the volume of trade, demand for food supplies and timber to build and repair ships also increased. To ensure a reliable supply of food and timber, the Europeans were forced to deal with the local communities nearby. These marked the beginnings of territorial control. A good example is the case of Batavia. There, the Dutch extended control over parts of western Java and later to central Java and the east where rice was grown and timber found.
To ensure that trade flourish, the Europeans had to maintain political stability. Sometimes, they interfered with the internal affairs of the natives to maintain peace. The Europeans also tried to impose their culture on their colonies. European interference has effected Southeast Asians on all major existential issues.
Exploited by the colonial economic system, robbed of the vast regional resources and subjected to racial and ethnic discrimination on the one hand, yet witnessing the rapid transformation towards modernity, scientific and technical progress, the import of secular political and education systems and humane ideas, that contradicted the current colonial reality on the other. Increased labour demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China , which brought about massive demographic change. The study of institutions for a modern democratic nation state with a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist and independence movements among the colonial subjects.
During the inter-war years, these nationalist movements grew and often clashed with the colonial authorities when they demanded self-determination. The expansion of European dominance through colonialism was considered extraordinary as it affected the entirety of Southeast Asia significantly. Later on, more common features would emerge, such as the rise of nationalist movements, the Japanese occupation of Southeast Asia , and later the Cold War that engulfed many parts of the region.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. French Indochina. Dutch East Indies.forpoecelra.tk
Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1914 [2 volumes]
Portuguese Timor. Spanish East Indies. British Burma , Malaya and Borneo. Further information: East Asia—United States relations. In , and again in , the Chinese government offered to make Macao the emporium for all foreign trade, and to receive all duties on imports; but, by a strange infatuation, the Portuguese government refused, and its decline is dated from that period.
Roberts, PDF image p.
About this book
They are all from the two provinces of Canton and Fo-kien, and three-fourths of them from the latter. Crawfurd image Retrieved 13 December Thailand: A Country Study. This certainly is very relevant to Eastern Europe, the first and closest periphery to the core of modernity.
Of course, one could claim that modernism in a very broad sense encompasses all these responses: it is the general expression and style of the modern times, the state of mind expressed in opposition to tradition, or the culture of modernity. The editors have chosen to use it in a stricter sense, giving it a very definite place between romanticism and anti-modernism and an approximate chronological span from the s until the decade following the First World War.
One could say that it coincides with the period of the powerful and unimpeded ascendancy of industrialism and the nation-state, and one can read in its expressions the unabashed triumphalism of the notion of progress. Indeed, practically all parts of this volume illustrate one or another aspect of the ambitious and optimistic construction and consolidation of the nation-state: the major ideologies that shaped this process, the projects and programs dealing with institution building and the challenges posed by imperial legacies and minority problems, and the reflexion of these processes in the sciences and the arts.
It is a question overwhelmingly answered in the positive by theorists of modernity, from Karl Polanyi to Anthony Giddens. For Polanyi the defining characteristic of modern society is the self-regulating market, which as an institutional structure is typical only for our times. It is the extension of commodification to the three basic elements of industry—labor, land, and money—which was the inevitable consequence of the introduction of the factory system in a commercial society and which constituted the crucial difference from preceding economic systems.
Giddens sees modernity as modes of organization of social life which emerged in Europe from about the seventeenth century onwards and which subsequently became more or less worldwide in their influence. He thus defines modernity as inherently characterized by globalization, whose main traits are the international division of labor, the global capitalist economy, the system of nation-states, and the global military order, 5 This stress on the economic aspects of modern society inevitably raises the question of modernization and its place in the overall theorizing of modernity.
The Baudelairian vision, equally alert to the effects of modernization, seeks to redeem modern culture by aestheticizing it. Each has their bright and dark sides. Societal modernization was anticipated by Enlightenment philosophers as the improvement of material conditions, economic prosperity and political emancipation, technological mastery, and the general growth of specialized knowledge, but it also brought the existential experience of alienation and despair in a disenchanted world of deadening and meaningless routine.
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The bright side of the Baudelairian vision found aesthetic pleasure in the creative excitement of searching for a meaning, and portrayed modernization as a spectacle of speed, novelty, and effervescence. Its dark side stressed the absence of moral constraints where the aesthetic pursuit could deteriorate from disciplined Nietzschean self-assertion against an absurd world into self-absorption and hedonism 6. Indeed, Bruno Latour argues that the division of tradition from modernity is the central characteristic of the modernist project, where division and classification entail the work of purification.