Manual Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds

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  2. Fact Sheet: Dioxins, Diet, and Health - IFIC Foundation
  3. US environment agency misses dioxin deadline

Reporting from:. Your name. Your email. Send Cancel. Check system status. Toggle navigation Menu. Name of resource. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Health risks from dioxin and related compounds : evaluation of the EPA reassessment. Physical description xxvi, p. Online Available online. Full view. SAL3 off-campus storage. C5 H43 Available. A cloud of toxic chemicals, including TCDD, was released into the air and eventually contaminated an area of 15 square kilometres where 37 people lived.

Extensive studies in the affected population are continuing to determine the long-term human health effects from this incident. TCDD has also been extensively studied for health effects linked to its presence as a contaminant in some batches of the herbicide Agent Orange, which was used as a defoliant during the Vietnam War. A link to certain types of cancers and also to diabetes is still being investigated. Although all countries can be affected, most contamination cases have been reported in industrialized countries where adequate food contamination monitoring, greater awareness of the hazard and better regulatory controls are available for the detection of dioxin problems.

A few cases of intentional human poisoning have also been reported. The most notable incident is the case of Viktor Yushchenko, President of the Ukraine, whose face was disfigured by chloracne. Short-term exposure of humans to high levels of dioxins may result in skin lesions, such as chloracne and patchy darkening of the skin, and altered liver function. Long-term exposure is linked to impairment of the immune system, the developing nervous system, the endocrine system and reproductive functions. Chronic exposure of animals to dioxins has resulted in several types of cancer.

However, TCDD does not affect genetic material and there is a level of exposure below which cancer risk would be negligible. Due to the omnipresence of dioxins, all people have background exposure and a certain level of dioxins in the body, leading to the so-called body burden. Current normal background exposure is not expected to affect human health on average.

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However, due to the high toxic potential of this class of compounds, efforts need to be undertaken to reduce current background exposure. The developing fetus is most sensitive to dioxin exposure. Newborn, with rapidly developing organ systems, may also be more vulnerable to certain effects. Some people or groups of people may be exposed to higher levels of dioxins because of their diet such as high consumers of fish in certain parts of the world or their occupation such as workers in the pulp and paper industry, in incineration plants, and at hazardous waste sites.

Proper incineration of contaminated material is the best available method of preventing and controlling exposure to dioxins. It can also destroy PCB-based waste oils.

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Prevention or reduction of human exposure is best done via source-directed measures, i. This is the responsibility of national governments. Therefore, protecting the food supply is critical. In addition to source-directed measures to reduce dioxin emissions, secondary contamination of the food supply needs to be avoided throughout the food chain. Good controls and practices during primary production, processing, distribution and sale are all essential in the production of safe food.

As indicated through the examples listed above, contaminated animal feed is often the root-cause of food contamination. Food and feed contamination monitoring systems must be in place to ensure that tolerance levels are not exceeded.

It is the responsibility of feed and food producers to assure safe raw materials and safe processes during production, and it is the role of national governments to monitor the safety of food supply and to take action to protect public health. When contamination is suspected, countries should have contingency plans to identify, detain and dispose of contaminated feed and food.

Fact Sheet: Dioxins, Diet, and Health - IFIC Foundation

The affected population should be examined in terms of exposure for example, measuring the contaminants in blood or human milk and effects for example, clinical surveillance to detect signs of ill health. Trimming fat from meat and consuming low fat dairy products may decrease the exposure to dioxin compounds. Also, a balanced diet including adequate amounts of fruits, vegetables and cereals will help to avoid excessive exposure from a single source. This is a long-term strategy to reduce body burdens and is probably most relevant for girls and young women to reduce exposure of the developing fetus and when breastfeeding infants later on in life.

However, the possibility for consumers to reduce their own exposure is somewhat limited. The quantitative chemical analysis of dioxins requires sophisticated methods that are available only in a limited number of laboratories around the world. Increasingly, biological cell- or antibody -based screening methods are being developed, and theuse of such methods for food and feed samples is increasingly being validated. Such screening methods allow more analyses at a lower cost, and in case of a positive screening test, confirmation of results must be carried out by more complex chemical analysis.

CASRN 1746-01-6

WHO published in for the first time estimates of the global burden of foodborne disease. Reducing dioxin exposure is an important public health goal for disease reduction. To provide guidance on acceptable levels of exposure, WHO has held a series of expert meetings to determine a tolerable intake of dioxins.

In order to assess long- or short-term risks to health due to these substances, total or average intake should be assessed over months, and the tolerable intake should be assessed over a period of at least 1 month. This level is the amount of dioxins that can be ingested over lifetime without detectable health effects. This document gives guidance to national and regional authorities on preventive measures.

Dioxins are included in this monitoring programme. WHO also conducted periodic studies on levels of dioxins in human milk. These studies provide an assessment of human exposure to dioxins from all sources. Recent exposure data indicate that measures introduced to control dioxin release in a number of developed countries have resulted in a substantial reduction in exposure over the past 2 decades. Data from developing countries are incomplete and do not allow yet a time-trend analysis.

US environment agency misses dioxin deadline

A number of actions are being considered to reduce the production of dioxins during incineration and manufacturing processes. WHO and UNEP are undertaking global breast milk surveys, including in many developing countries, to monitor trends in dioxin contamination across the globe and the effectiveness of measures implemented under the Stockholm Convention. Dioxins occur as a complex mixture in the environment and in food. In order to assess the potential risk of the whole mixture, the concept of toxic equivalence has been applied to this group of contaminants.

WHO has established and regularly re-evaluated toxic equivalency factors TEFs for dioxins and related compounds through expert consultations. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like substances pdf, kb Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.